The text in for my Master’s program has a great definition of the components to training and development. This is just an intro definition but breaks it down very aptly.
The term training and development includes all attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee’s ability to perform. A well-designed training program often leads to higher retention rates, increased productivity, and greater job satisfaction. Employers in the United States generally find that money for training is well spent. Training focuses on short-term skills, whereas development focuses on long-term abilities. Both include three steps: (1) assessing organization needs and employee skills to determine training needs; (2) designing training activities to meet identified needs; and (3) evaluating the training’s effectiveness. Some common training and development activities are employee orientation, on-the-job training, apprenticeships, off-the-job training, vestibule training, job simulation, and management training.
- Orientation is the activity that initiates new employees into the organization; to fellow employees; to their immediate supervisors; and to the policies, practices, and objectives of the firm. Orientation programs range from informal talks to formal activities that last a day or more and often include scheduled visits to various departments and required reading of handbooks. For example, at Zappos every new employee in the online retailer’s Henderson, Nevada, headquarters must spend two weeks answering customer calls, two weeks learning in a classroom, and a week shipping boxes in the company’s Kentucky fulfillment center.
- On-the-job training lets the employee learn by doing, or by watching others for a while and then imitating them, right at the workplace. Salespeople, for example, are often trained by watching experienced salespeople perform (often called shadowing). Naturally, this can be either quite effective or disastrous, depending on the skills and habits of the person being observed. On-the-job training is the easiest kind of training to implement when the job is relatively simple (such as clerking in a store) or repetitive (such as collecting refuse, cleaning carpets, or mowing lawns). More demanding or intricate jobs require a more intense training effort. Intranets and other forms of technology make cost-effective on-the-job training programs available 24 hours a day. Computer systems can monitor workers’ input and give them instructions if they become confused about what to do next.
- In apprentice programs a learner works alongside an experienced employee to master the skills and procedures of a craft. Some apprentice programs include classroom training. Trade unions in skilled crafts, such as bricklaying and plumbing, require a new worker to serve as an apprentice for several years to ensure excellence as well as to limit entry to the union. Workers who success- fully complete an apprenticeship earn the classification journeyman. As baby boomers retire from skilled trades such as pipefitting, welding, and carpentry, shortages of trained workers will result. Apprentice programs may be shortened to prepare people for skilled jobs in changing industries such as auto repair and air- craft maintenance that require increased knowledge of computer technology. About 450,000 apprentices are registered with the U.S. Department of Labor.
- Off-the-job training occurs away from the workplace and consists of internal or external programs to develop any of a variety of skills or to foster personal development. Training is becoming more sophisticated as jobs become more sophisticated. Furthermore, training is expanding to include education (through the Ph.D.) and personal development. Subjects may include time management, stress management, health and wellness, physical education, nutrition, and even art and languages.
- Online training demonstrates how technology is improving the efficiency of many off-the-job training programs. Most colleges and universities now offer a wide variety of online classes, sometimes called distance learning, including introductory business courses. Both nonprofit and profit-seeking businesses make extensive use of online training. The Red Cross offers an online tutorial called “Be Red Cross Ready” to help citizens prepare for disasters such as floods, tornadoes, or hurricanes.21 Technology giants like EMC and large manufacturers like Timken use the online training tool GlobeSmart to teach employees how to operate in different cultures.22 Online training’s key advantage is the ability to provide a large number of employees with consistent content tailored to specific training needs at convenient times.
- Vestibule training (or near-the-job training) is done in classrooms with equipment similar to that used on the job so that employees learn proper methods and safety procedures before assuming a specific job assignment. Computer and robotics training is often completed in a vestibule classroom.
- Job simulation is the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so that trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job. It differs from vestibule training in that it duplicates the exact combination of conditions that occur on the job. This is the kind of training given to astronauts, airline pilots, army tank operators, ship captains, and others who must learn difficult procedures off the job.
Nickels, McHugh, McHugh, 10e 278)
Nickels, McHugh, McHugh, 10e. McGraw-Hill Create. <vbk:9781121937352#pages(272-276)